TEST TYPES

We provide professional advice in choosing the appropriate testing method.

Polimer NDT Laboratory provides services which involve the following testing methods:

Radiographic testing (RT)

We provide radiographic testing services using X-ray and gamma ray equipment.
Your radiographic testing results may be ready very quickly at the location of performance thanks to our Mobile Lab, avehicle adapted to radiographic film processing and evaluation, which facilitates making regular adjustments whenever needed.

Radiographic testing (RT) is a non-destructive testing method which facilitates the detection of discontinuities occurring inside the examined material. During RT, high-energy ionising radiation (X or γ) is directed at the object, and a sheet of radiographic film is placed behind it. After passing through the object, the radiation carries the internal image of the examined element as a projection of discontinuities (such as bubbles or solid inclusions) expressed in radiation dose differences, which is exposed on the radiographic image by blackening power variations. The final radiographic image is obtained by subjecting the film to specific photochemical processing (developing process). Any detected discontinuities are evaluated in the radiographic image according to specific criteria.

Authorisation range
Applicable standards, procedures and instructionsExamination rangeExamined objectsObject group
PN-EN ISO 5579 “Non-destructive testing – Radiographic testing of metallic materials using film and X- or gamma rays – Basic rules”
PN-EN ISO 17636-1 “Non-destructive testing of welds - Radiographic testing –
Part 1: X- and gamma-ray techniques with film”
PN- ISO 12681-1 “Founding – Radiographic testing - Part 1: Film techniques”
Discontinuities of welded joints with a thickness of up to 100 mm
Imperfections of steel bars
Imperfections of steel forgings
Imperfections of steel castings
Metallurgical materials
Permanent joints
Technical equipment
Steel structures
PN-EN ISO 10893-6 “Non-destructive testing of steel tubes –
Part 6: Radiographic testing of the weld seam of welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections”
Imperfections of steel tubes

Pursuant to Article 32c (1) and (2) of the Act of 29 November 2000 on Atomic Energy (Journal of Laws of 2019, item 1792, consolidated text – Journal of Laws of 2021, item 623), the company FHU Polimer Grzegorz Grzesik informs you that within the last 12 months it has not recorded any impact of its activities on human health and the environment and no radioactive substance releases to the environment have been recorded in connection with its activities.

Ultrasonic testing (UT)

Ultrasonic tests are carried out as per the standards listed below (thickness ≥ 8) and using the IBUS method (thickness range from 2 to 8 mm).

Ultrasonic testing is a volumetric testing method, which allows detecting and evaluating readings (imperfections) occurring inside the tested object. This method facilitates determining the location and scale of imperfections inside the material. It detects imperfections using ultrasonic waves, which usually have frequencies of 0.5–6 MHz. An ultrasonic head is used to emit ultrasonic waves that penetrate into the material. Discontinuities in the tested element reflect a part of the beam, which returns to the head (transducer). The testing technique is based on observing the impulses reflected from material discontinuities on the oscilloscope screen.

Authorisation range
Applicable standards, procedures and instructionsExamination rangeExamined objectsObject group
PN-EN ISO 16810 „Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – General principles”
PN-EN ISO 17640 „Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Techniques, testing levels, and assessment”
Discontinuities of welded joints with a thickness from 8 mm,Metallurgical materials
Permanent joints
Technical equipment
Steel structures
IBUS-TD 07 Manual, version 07/16Imperfections of welded joints from 2 to 8 mm
PN- ISO 10308 „Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing of steel bars”Imperfections of steel bars
PN- ISO 10228-3 “Non-destructive testing of steel forgings–
Part 3: Ultrasonic testing of ferritic or martensitic steel forgings”
Imperfections of steel forgings
PN- ISO 10228-4 “Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Imperfections of steel forgings
Part 4: Ultrasonic testing of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic stainless steel forgings”
PN-EN 12680-1 “Founding – Ultrasonic testing –
Part 1: Steel castings for general purposes”
Imperfections of steel castings
PN-EN 10160 “Ultrasonic testing of steel flat product of thickness equal or greater than 6 mm (reflection method)”Imperfections of flat steel products with a thickness from 6 mm
PN-EN ISO 10893-8 “Non-destructive testing of steel tubes – Part 8: Automated ultrasonic testing of seamless and welded steel tubes for the detection of laminar imperfections”
PN-EN ISO 10893-10 “Non-destructive testing of steel tubes –
Part 10: Automated full peripheral ultrasonic testing of seamless and welded (except submerged arc-welded) steel tubes for the detection of longitudinal and/or transverse imperfections”
Imperfections of steel tubes

Ultrasonic Thickness Testing (UTT)

Material thickness measurements can also be made through the coating, including in high temperatures.

Ultrasonic thickness testing involves longitudinal ultrasonic waves penetrating the material and a measurement of the time in which the wave passes through the object.

Authorisation range
Applicable standards, procedures and instructionsExamination rangeExamined objectsObject group
PN-EN ISO 16809 „Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic thickness measurement”Thickness measurements using a thickness gauge from 0.6 mm to 500 mmMetallurgical materials
Permanent joints
Technical equipment
Steel structures

Penetrant testing (PT)

Penetrant testing is performed with a coloured fluid or fluorescent dye (under UV light), also at elevated temperatures.

Penetrant testing is a method of surface inspection which can be performed on alloy and non-alloy steels, steel castings, cast iron, aluminium, copper, nickel, titanium, plastics and other materials. Penetrant testing takes advantage of the phenomenon of capillarity, which involves the penetration of a liquid (penetrant) with a low surface tension into narrow spaces (discontinuities), and its pulling using an absorbent fluid (developing fluid) The penetrant testing method is used to detect such discontinuities as porosity, cracks, cold shutting, etc. Additionally, it can be used for tightness testing.

Authorisation range
Applicable standards, procedures and instructionsExamination rangeExamined objectsObject group
PN-EN ISO 3452-1 “Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing –
Part 1: General principles”
Surface discontinuities of welded jointsMetallurgical materials
Permanent joints
Technical equipment
Steel structures
PN- ISO 10228-2 “Non-destructive testing of steel forgings–
Part 2: Penetrant testing”
Surface discontinuities of forgings
PN-EN 1371-1 “Founding – Liquid penetrant testing –
Part 1: Sand, gravity die and low pressure die castings”
Surface discontinuities of casts
PN-EN ISO 10893-4 “Non-destructive testing of steel tubes –
Part 4: Liquid penetrant inspection of seamless and welded steel tubes for the detection of surface imperfections”
Surface discontinuities of steel tubes

Magnetic particle testing (MT)

Magnetic particle testing is a method of surface and subsurface inspection (up to 2 mm of depth) used for ferromagnetic materials. It involves the introduction of a magnetic field into the object and observation of local dispersions of that field. Dispersions form directly above imperfections and are revealed with the use of fine particles applied to the surface of the inspected element during the application of the magnetic field.

Authorisation range
Applicable standards, procedures and instructionsExamination rangeExamined objectsObject group
PN-EN ISO 9934-1 “Non-destructive testing – Magnetic particle testing –
Part 1: General principles”
PN-EN ISO 17638 “Non-destructive testing of welds - Magnetic particle testing
Surface discontinuities of welded jointsMetallurgical materials
Permanent joints
Technical equipment
Steel structures
PN-EN ISO 10228-1 “Non-destructive testing of steel forgings–
Part 1:Magnetic particle testing”
Surface discontinuities of forgings
PN-EN 1369 “Founding – Magnetic particle testing"Surface discontinuities of casts
PN-EN ISO 10893-5 “Non-destructive testing of steel tubes –
Part 5: Magnetic particle inspection of seamless and welded ferromagnetic steel tubes for the detection of surface imperfections”
Surface discontinuities of steel tubes

Visual testing (VT)

Visual testing is a mainstay of surface inspection performed before all other non-destructive tests. Visual testing only allows the detection of imperfections formed on the surface of welded joints. Observations are made from the side of the face and the root (if access is provided) using the naked eye or with mirrors, loupes, etc.

Authorisation range
Applicable standards, procedures and instructionsExamination rangeExamined objectsObject group
PN-EN ISO 17637 „Non-destructive testing of welds – Visual testing of fusion-welded joints”
PN-EN ISO 13018 „Non-destructive testing – Visual testing – General principles”
Shape imperfections and surface discontinuities of welded jointsMetallurgical materials
Permanent joints
Technical equipment
Steel structures
Description of Research Methodology No. NL/PB – 1.9
“Length and angle measurements”, issue 1 of 01/04/2020
Determining the real values of length “L” [mm] with measurements of ovalisation, ovality, edge distance, and axial distance

Hardness testing (HT)

Hardness measurement of metals using a portable hardness tester is performed to inspect the hardness of metals and their welded joints without the need to collect samples

Authorisation range
Applicable standards, procedures
and instructions
Examination rangeExamined objectsObject group
Description of Testing
Methodology No. NL/PB-1.7,
“Hardness measurement using a portable hardness tester”, issue 1
of 01/04//2020.
Hardness
measurement using
the UCI method in
the HV10 load range
Metallurgical
materials
Permanent joints
Technical equipment
Steel structures

Positive material identification (PMI)

We analyse the chemical composition of materials and alloys using portable devices with the X-ray fluorescence method.

Testing metals using a handheld X-ray spectrometer (XRF) provides insights into the chemical composition of elements without the need to collect samples. The spectrometer features an X-ray lamp emitting radiation that induces metal atom excitation. The measurement result is obtained by calculating the photons (fluorescence) emitted by excited atoms.

Authorisation range
Applicable standards, procedures and instructionsExamination rangeExamined objectsObject group
Description of Testing Methodology No. NL/PB-1.8,
“Chemical composition testing”, issue 1 of
01/04//2020.
Chemical testing, X-ray
spectrometry method.
Metallurgical materials
Permanent joints
Technical
equipment
Steel structures

Leak testing (LT)

Leak testing using bubble emission techniques is a testing method that allows the detection of discontinuities in the material going through it, or leaks, using vacuum pads

The testing method utilises the pressure difference between connected media and the penetration of gas from the medium with a higher pressure (atmosphere) to the medium with a lower pressure (vacuum chamber) The use of a foam solution in the vacuum chamber makes it possible to see the penetration of air from the atmosphere through leaks, so they can be located.
Application range
Applicable standards, procedures and instructionsExamination rangeExamined objectsObject group
PN-EN 1593 „Non-destructive testing. Leak testing.
Bubble emission techniques”
Discontinuities of welded jointsMetallurgical materials
Permanent joints
Technical equipment
PN-EN 1779 „Non-destructive testing. Leak testing.
Criteria for method and technique selection”
Steel structures